What is #SaveKinipan?

#SaveKinipan is a movement initiated by the Indigenous People of Dayak Tomun in Laman Kinipan, Lamandau, Central Kalimantan, which aims to protect and preserve their ancestral domain from PT Sawit Mandiri Lestari (SML), a company that wants the Indigenous land for palm oil plantations. Apart from being a source of life and cultural identity for the Indigenous People population who lives there, Kinipan forest is also home to a large percentage of protected endemic species such as orangutans, clouded leopards, as well as it is one of the last rainforests in Kalimantan.

What is happening in Kinipan?

In the month of May 2005, PT Sawit Mandiri Lestari (SML) came to the indigenous territory of Laman Kinipan, Lamandau and Central Kalimantan in an attempt to encourage the Indigenous Peopls to accept the presence of palm oil investment in their territory. The Laman Kinipan Indigenous Community immediately refused and asked PT. SML to operate outside of their ancestral domain. This is because for the Indigenous People in Laman Kinipan, the forest of which they populate is seen as a gift from their ancestors and source of life that should be preserved for future generations to come.

Seven years later, on 21 June 2012, PT SML returned to Kinipan village with the same agenda, which is to bring the palm oil industry into Kinipan. This time, they were granted a ‘permit’ by the Lamandau Regent, Ir. Marukan through the Regent's Letter Number EK.525.26/01/SK-IL/VI/2012 that was later followed by the Regent Decree No. EK.525.26/01/SK-IUP/IV/2014 concerning Permit for Plantation Business of PT SML.

The Indigenous People of Laman Kinipan, who never gave their consent, immediately made a statement letter of rejection. The letter was signed by the three village chiefs who belonged to the areas granted concession to the PT. SML - these areas are the Village of Kinipan, the Village of Ginih, and the Village of Batu Tambun. The FPIC (Free, Prior and Informed Consent) mechanism was violated because the Laman Kinipan Indigenous Peoples were never involved in the process of issuing the decree. However, the refusal was dismissed/ignored by the company and local government because in November 2014, a series of business permits were issued to PT SML to operate in the Kinipan territory. The rows of permits are:

Decree (Surat Keputusan) of the Regent of Lamandau No.188.45/478/XI/HUK/2014 concerning PT SML Environmental Permit (November 21st, 2014).
Decree of the Chairman of Indonesia Investment Coordinating Board Number: 1/1/PK/PMDN/2015 regarding the Release of Part of the Production Forest Area to be converted (March 19th, 2015).
Central Kalimantan Governor Recommendation Letter Number 503/1059/PTSP: The company obtained a recommendation from the Governor of Central Kalimantan regarding the Conformity with the Central Kalimantan Plantation Development Macro Plan (December 30th, 2016).
Decree of the Minister of Agrarian and Spatial Planning / Head of the National Land Agency Number 82/HGU/KEM-ATR/BPN/2017 regarding Granting Cultivation Rights Title on behalf of PT. Sawit Mandiri Lestari (August 9th, 2017).
All operating licenses for PT SML were issued without any involvement of the Laman Kinipan Indigenous People who are the owners of these ancestral domains.

As a response to the plunder of their ancestral domain, the Laman Kinipan Indigenous Peoples began to organize themselves in solidarity.

They carried out participatory mapping of ancestral domains, staged an action in front of the Regional House of Representatives (DPRD) office in Lamandau District, and headed to the Presidential Staff Office (KSP) in Jakarta. However, following all of this, there has still been no positive outcomes. Until now, trees have been cut down in the ancestral rainforest of Laman Kinipan by PT SML to clear the area and convert them into palm oil plantations.

What caused this issue?

Forests that should belong to the Indigenous People are unilaterally considered State Forest through Law No. 41 of 1999 concerning Forestry. This issue happened because the Indonesian government failed to comply and obey Article 18B of the 1945 Constitution regarding the acknowledgement, protection and fulfillment of the rights of Indigenous People. Although the decision of the Constitutional Court (Mahkamah Konstitusi) No. 35 of 2012 explicitly states that customary forests (ancestral domains) are not state forests, to this day there are still a growing number of ancestral domains in Indonesia (one of which is the Kinipan Ancestral Domain) that have been exploited and plundered by the government for the benefit of corporations and a handful of parties. In addition, the Draft of the Indigenous People Bill, that has not yet been passed (since 2012), also increasingly positions the Indigenous People in a vulnerable position to be criminalized and deprived of their living space.

What are the impacts?

Transforming the Kinipan Forest into oil palm plantations will not only result in the extinction of protected endemic species, but will also pave the way for periodic flooding, landslides and accelerating the rate of the climate crisis. In addition, the deprivation of the living space of the Laman Kinipan Indigenous People will also have an impact on the preservation of forests in Indonesia because various studies have shown that Indigenous People are the best conservationists because they practice a very sustainable lifestyle.

What is the solution?

The Regional Government must immediately issue a Decree (Surat Keputusan) or Regional Regulation (Peraturan Daerah) on the Recognition of Laman Kinipan Ancestral Domain so that Indigenous People can get recognition of their ancestral domain from the Ministry of Environment and Forestry (Kementerian Lingkungan Hidup dan Kehutanan) which gives them the authority and freedom to manage ancestral domains, particularly in protecting their territory from mining and palm companies.

How did the government respond?

Although the mapping of Laman Kinipan Ancestral Domain has been carried out by the Laman Kinipan Indigenous Peoples themselves together with the Ancestral Domain Registration Agency (Badan Registrasi Wilayah Adat), the central government and local governments have never given any recognition of ancestral domain to the Laman Kinipan Indigenous Peoples while in fact, based on the constitution, all the requirements to obtain the recognition of Laman Kinipan ancestral domain have been fulfilled.

Unfortunately, the regional government, especially the Governor of Central Kalimantan Sugianto Sabran, and the Regent of Lamandau Hendra Lesmana, seemed to ignore the conflict in Kinipan. The negligence of the local government toward this issue is evidenced by their absence in the Kinipan conflict resolution meeting organized by the Presidential Staff Office (Kantor Staf Presiden) in Jakarta and a statement by the Regent of Lamandau that ‘there are no ancestral domains in Lamandau District.’

In addition, recently the criminalization of the Laman Kinipan Indigenous People has begun to intensify. Starting from mid-July to August 2020, six members of the Laman Kinipan
Indigenous People were taken to the police station, among them, the head of Laman Kinipan Indigenous Community named Effendi Buhing.

On August 26th, Effendi Buhing was arrested with violence by the regional police of Central Kalimantan. He was dragged from the inside of his home to a prepared car guarded by police with armed rifles. Pak Effendi and five other Laman Kinipan members, Riswan, Yusa, Teki, Desem, and Embang, were charged with Article 365 of violent theft as he was accused of stealing a 'chainsaw' belonging to PT SML.

In fact, the chainsaw was handed over by the PT SML operator when the patrol group of Laman Kinipan community stopped the tree cutting operations by SML employees in the Laman Kinipan area on June 20. The action was done harmless without any physical aggression towards the encroachers.

Until now, the threats of criminalization still lurks the Indigenous Peoples of Laman Kinipan who are fighting in the frontline to preserve and protect their ancestral domain.

What can we do to help?

Although this conflict is in the indigenous territory of Laman Kinipan, all Indonesians will be heavily impacted if the Kinipan forest is cleared for palm oil plantations. Therefore, we should engage in the solidarity movement with the Laman Kinipan Indigenous People to stop PT SML's operations by doing the following:
Donate to the construction of four sacred halls at the four boundary points of the Laman Kinipan Ancestral domains and for the purposes of traditional ritualsSign the #SaveKinipan petitionPush the government to provide recognition of Ancestral Domain to the Indigenous Peoples of Laman Kinipan by commenting, mentioning, or tagging their social media accounts:

  1. Indonesian Ministry of Environment and Forestry: @kementerianlhk on Instagram and @kementerianlhk on Twitter

  2. Siti Nurbaya Bakar (Minister of Environment and Forestry): @siti.nurbayabakar on Instagram

  3. Regional Secretariat of Central Kalimantan: @sekretariat.daerah.kalteng on Instagram or @setda_kalteng on Twitter

  4. Sugianto Sabran (Governor of Central Kalimantan): @sugianto_sabran on Instagram

  5. Regional Secretariat of Lamandau Region: @setdalamandau on Instagram

  6. Hendra Lesmana (Regent of Lamandau): @hendra_lesman4 on Instagram

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Apa itu #SaveKinipan?

#SaveKinipan adalah gerakan yang diinisiasi oleh Masyarakat Adat Dayak Tomun di Laman Kinipan, Lamandau, Kalimantan Tengah yang bertujuan untuk mempertahankan hutan adat mereka yang terancam oleh investasi sawit milik PT Sawit Mandiri Lestari sejak tahun 2005. Selain menjadi sumber kehidupan dan identitas budaya Masyarakat Adat yang tinggal di sana, Hutan Kinipan juga merupakan rumah bagi banyak spesies endemik yang dilindungi seperti orangutan, macan dahan, dan salah satu hutan hujan terakhir di Kalimantan.

Bagaimana kronologinya?

Pada bulan Mei 2005, PT Sawit Mandiri Lestari (SML) datang ke wilayah adat Laman Kinipan, Lamandau, Kalimantan Tengah untuk melakukan 'sosialisasi' dan memohon kepada Masyarakat Adat Dayak Tomun yang bermukim di sana untuk menerima kehadiran investasi sawit. Masyarakat Adat Laman Kinipan menyatakan menolak dan meminta PT. SML untuk beroperasi di luar wilayah adat mereka. Sebab, bagi Masyarakat Adat Laman Kinipan, hutan adalah pemberian leluhur dan sumber kehidupan yang harus dijaga untuk masa depan generasi mendatang.

Tujuh tahun berselang, pada 21 Juni 2012, PT SML kembali datang ke Desa Kinipan dengan agenda yang sama: membawa sawit masuk ke dalam Kinipan. Kunjungan kedua ini disertai dengan izin lokasi yang diberikan oleh Bupati Lamandau kala itu, Ir. Marukan. Surat Bupati dengan nomor EK.525.26/01/SK-IL/VI/2012 yang kemudian disusul oleh SK Bupati No. EK.525.26/01/SK-IUP/IV/2014 tentang Izin Usaha Perkebunan PT SML.

Masyarakat Adat Laman Kinipan yang merasa tidak pernah memberikan persetujuan langsung membuat surat pernyataan penolakan. Surat ini ditandatangani tiga kepala desa yang termasuk di dalam konsesi PT. SML, yaitu Desa Kinipan, Desa Ginih, dan Desa Batu Tambun. Mekanisme FPIC (Free, Prior and Informed Consent) dilanggar karena Masyarakat Adat Laman Kinipan tidak pernah dilibatkan dalam proses dikeluarkannya SK tersebut.

Namun penolakan tersebut dianggap angin lalu oleh pihak perusahaan dan pemerintah setempat. Pada bulan November 2014, mulai muncul serentetan izin-izin usaha yang diberikan kepada PT SML untuk beroperasi di wilayah Kinipan. Deretan izin tersebut adalah:
Surat Keputusan (SK) Bupati Lamandau No.188.45/478/XI/HUK/2014 tentang Izin Lingkungan PT SML (21 November 2014).Surat Keputusan Kepala Badan Koordinasi Penanaman Modal Nomor: 1/1/PKH/PMDN/2015 Tentang Pelepasan Sebagian Kawasan Hutan Produksi yang dapat Dikonversi (19 Maret 2015)Surat Rekomendasi Gubernur Kalimantan Tengah Nomor 503/1059/PTSP Perusahaan memperoleh Rekomendasi dari Gubernur Kalteng terkait Kesesuaian Dengan Rencana Makro Pembangunan Perkebunan Provinsi Kalimantan Tengah (30 Desember 2016).Surat Keputusan Menteri Agraria Dan Tata Ruang / Kepala Badan Pertanahan Nasional Nomor 82/HGU/KEM-ATR/BPN/2017 Perihal : Pemberian Hak Guna Usaha Atas Nama PT. Sawit Mandiri Lestari (9 Agustus 2017).
Seluruh perizinan operasi untuk PT SML diterbitkan tanpa sedikitpun melibatkan Masyarakat Adat Laman Kinipan sebagai pemilik wilayah adat.

Sebagai respon terhadap perampasan wilayah adat, Masyarakat Adat Laman Kinipan mulai mengorganisir diri dan solidaritas. Mereka melakukan pemetaan partisipatif wilayah adat, menggelar aksi di depan kantor DPRD Kab. Lamandau, hingga menuju Jakarta untuk mendatangi Kantor Staf Presiden. Namun, semuanya tak kunjung memberikan hasil.

Hingga kini, pohon-pohon bertumbangan di wilayah adat Laman Kinipan karena dibabat PT SML untuk diubah menjadi kebun sawit.

Apa penyebabnya?

Hutan yang seharusnya milik Masyarakat Adat, secara sepihak dianggap sebagai Hutan Negara melalui UU No. 41 Tahun 1999 tentang Kehutanan. Hal ini terjadi karena pemerintah Indonesia gagal dalam memenuhi dan mematuhi Pasal 18B UUD 1945 (Konstitusi) tentang pengakuan, perlindungan dan pemenuhan hak-hak Masyarakat Adat.

Meski putusan Mahkamah Konstitusi (MK) No. 35 Tahun 2012 secara tegas menyatakan bahwa hutan adat bukan hutan negara, hingga hari ini masih banyak wilayah adat di Indonesia yang dirampas oleh pemerintah untuk kepentingan korporasi dan segelintir pihak, salah satunya Hutan Adat Kinipan.

Selain itu, Draft RUU Masyarakat Adat yang tidak kunjung disahkan sejak tahun 2012 juga semakin menempatkan Masyarakat Adat dalam posisi rentan untuk dikriminalisasi dan dirampas ruang hidupnya.

Apa dampaknya?

Mengubah hutan Kinipan menjadi perkebunan sawit tidak hanya berakibat pada punahnya hewan-hewan endemik yang dilindungi, tetapi juga membuka jalan datangnya banjir berkala, tanah longsor dan mempercepat laju krisis iklim.

Selain itu, perampasan ruang hidup Masyarakat Adat Laman Kinipan juga akan berdampak pada kelestarian hutan di Indonesia karena berbagai riset telah menunjukkan bahwa Masyarakat Adat adalah konservasionis terbaik di garda terdepan untuk menjaga agar bumi tetap lestari.

Apa solusinya?

Pemerintah Daerah harus segera mengeluarkan Surat Keputusan (SK) atau Peraturan Daerah (Perda) Pengakuan Hutan Adat Laman Kinipan supaya Masyarakat Adat bisa mendapatkan pengakuan hutan adat dari Kementerian LHK yang memberikan mereka kewenangan dan kebebasan untuk mengelola wilayah adat, khususnya dalam melindungi dan mempertahankan hutan adat dari ancaman perusahaan kelapa sawit.

Bagaimana respon pemerintah?

Meski pemetaan wilayah adat telah dilakukan oleh Masyarakat Adat Laman Kinipan bersama Badan Registrasi Wilayah Adat (BRWA), pemerintah pusat maupun pemerintah daerah tidak kunjung memberikan pengakuan hutan adat kepada Masyarakat Adat Laman Kinipan. Padahal, berdasarkan konstitusi semua syarat untuk pengakuan hutan adat Kinipan sudah terpenuhi. Pemerintah daerah, khususnya Gubernur Kalimantan Tengah Sugianto Sabran, dan Bupati Lamandau Hendra Lesmana, juga seakan abai terhadap konflik di Kinipan. Abainya pemerintah daerah terbukti dengan ketidakhadiran mereka dalam rapat penyelesaian konflik Kinipan yang diselenggarakan oleh Kantor Staf Presiden (KSP) dan pernyataan Bupati Lamandau bahwa tidak ada hutan adat di Kabupaten Lamandau.

Disamping itu, dalam beberapa waktu belakangan ini kriminalisasi terhadap Masyarakat Adat Laman Kinipan mulai gencar dilakukan. Terhitung sejak pertengahan Juli-Agustus 2020, ada enam anggota Masyarakat Adat Laman Kinipan yang dibawa ke kantor polisi. Salah satunya adalah Effendi Buhing, Ketua Komunitas Adat Laman Kinipan.
Pada tanggal 26 Agustus, Effendi Buhing ditangkap secara paksa dengan kekerasan oleh Polda Kalimantan Tengah. Beliau diseret dari dalam rumah menuju mobil yang telah dijaga oleh polisi bersenjata laras panjang. Pak Effendi dan lima warga Laman Kinipan lainnya, Riswan, Yusa, Teki, Desem, dan Embang, dikenakan Pasal 365 KUHP pencurian dengan kekerasan karena dituduh mencuri alat gergaji mesin (chainsaw) milik PT SML.

Padahal, chainsaw itu diserahkan oleh operator PT SML ketika warga meminta mereka untuk berhenti melakukan penebangan pohon ulin di wilayah adat yang sedang dipertahankan oleh Masyarakat Adat Laman Kinipan pada tanggal 20 Juni yang lalu. Semuanya dilakukan secara damai dan tanpa kekerasan.

Sampai saat ini, ancaman kriminalisasi masih terus mengintai warga yang berjuang mempertahankan tanah leluhur mereka dan belum ada itikad baik dari pemerintah untuk mengeluarkan SK Penetapan Hutan Adat Kinipan.

Bagaimana kita bisa membantu?

Walaupun konflik ini berada di wilayah adat Laman Kinipan, kita semua juga akan terdampak jika Hutan Kinipan habis dibabat untuk perusahaan sawit. Oleh sebab itu, kita dapat bersolidaritas dengan Masyarakat Adat Laman Kinipan untuk menghentikan operasi PT SML dengan melakukan cara-cara berikut:
Berdonasi untuk pembangunan empat balai keramat di empat titik batas wilayah adat Laman Kinipan dan keperluan ritual adat Menandatangani petisi #SaveKinipanMendorong pemerintah untuk memberikan pengakuan hutan adat kepada Masyarakat Adat Laman Kinipan dengan mengomentari (comment), menyebut (mention), atau menandai (tag) mereka dalam unggahan yang berkaitan dengan Laman Kinipan atau di sosial media mereka:

  1. Kementerian Lingkungan Hidup dan Kehutanan Indonesia: @kementerianlhk di Instagram dan @kementerianlhk Twitter

  2. Siti Nurbaya Bakar (Menteri Lingkungan Hidup dan Kehutanan): @siti.nurbayabakar di Instagram

  3. Sekretariat Daerah Kalimantan Tengah: @sekretariat.daerah.kalteng di Instagram atau @setda_kalteng di Twitter

  4. Sugianto Sabran (Gubernur Kalimantan Tengah): @sugianto_sabran di Instagtam

  5. Sekretariat Daerah Kabupaten Lamandau: @setdalamandau di Instagram

  6. Hendra Lesmana (Bupati Lamandau): @hendra_lesman4 di Instagram

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